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Plasma 粗略指南 your rough guide to plasma  

2008-05-28 20:34:11|  分类: planet KDE |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
英文原文为 Sebastian Kuegler 创作
原文链接:http://vizzzion.org/?blogentry=817
本文为原文 + nihui 的翻译,为了方便中文用户阅读,特意用了两种颜色的文字。

your rough guide to plasma
Plasma 粗略指南

So I've chosen to become  Shane's Personal Plasma Steward. This in turn makes me much more aware of things, that I personally take for granted which aren't so natural (yet) to others. One of those things is "How does this thing work?" (for "plasma" as value of thing). Let me explain on a high level how you can use Plasma and make the most of it, starting with a default Plasma desktop.

我已选为 Shane's Personal Plasma Steward。这便使我意识到了一些别人还用不习惯的而自己认为理所当然的事情。其中一个是“这个东西是如何工作的?”(“plasma”就是这种东西)。让我在高的层面上解释一下你该如何使用 Plasma 以及如何最大化使用它,我先从一个默认的 Plasma 桌面说起。

Plasma 粗略指南 your rough guide to plasma - nihui - Nihuis Blog

plasmoids and containments
plasmoids 和 容器

The essence of Plasma revolves around two basic concepts: Plasmoids and Containments. Plasmoids are Applets, small applications that live on the desktop. Containments are applets as well, they act as container for Plasmoids. That's it. Really. On a default desktop, there are two main elements: the Panel and the desktop itself. Both are containments in the Plasma sense.

Plasma 的本质无外乎两个基本概念:Plasmoids 和 容器。Plasmoids 就是存在于桌面上的部件和小程序。容器同样也是部件,它们用来盛放 Plasmoids。就是这样了,真的。在默认桌面上,就两个主要元素:面板和桌面本身。在 Plasma 层面上而言都是容器。

the panel
面板

The panel holds a couple of Plasmoids, starting from the left, there's the Kickoff application launcher. You can use it to start applications, open recently opened files and the usual logout/shutdown options. There's also a structure that allows you to browse through your applications. The layout has been optimized for the usecase that is most common: starting an application. The default tab is the "Favorites" tab that holds you most-used entries. In the beginning, you'll probably find yourself using the Applications tab more often. Once you have found out what your most frequently started applications are, right click on the items and add them to your favorites (or directly into the panel or on the desktop. Note that you need to "unlock" Plasma by means of right clicking on the desktop for any kind of modification). If you prefer KDE's traditional menu-style application launcher, change it to use that by right clicking on the menu button "Switch to Classic Menu Style"

面板拥有几个 Plasmoids,从最左边开始是 Kickoff 程序启动器。你可以使用它启动应用程序、打开最近使用过的文件和通常的注销/关机选项。也有个允许你浏览你的应用程序的构架。默认的标签是保存你最经常使用条目的“收藏夹”标签。在开始阶段,你很有可能发觉你会更多地使用应用程序标签。一旦你找到了你最频繁使用的应用程序,在该项目上右键点击并添加到你的收藏夹(或者直接添加到面板或桌面。注意,在做出任何更改之前,你需要通过在桌面上右键点击以“解锁”Plasma)。如果你更喜欢 KDE 的传统菜单样式的应用程序启动器,可以在菜单按钮上右键点击选择“切换到经典菜单样式”。

The next icon (looking like either a desktop computer or a laptop, depending on the type of machine) is the devicenotifier. Plug in a USB disk and it will pop up a dialog that lets you open the device in Dolphin.

下一个图标(看起来像是个桌面计算机或是个笔记本电脑。取决于机器的类型)是个设备通知器。插入一个 USB 磁盘设备,它会弹出一个对话框让你在 Dolphin 中打开该设备。

The next item on your panel is the pager. It allows you to switch between your virtual desktops. If you change the layout of the pager through the "number of rows" option, it will also affect the layout and animations that are shown in KWin's DesktopGrid effect -- (Switch on desktop effect, press [CTRL]+F8 to see it.) For bigger pagers switching on "Display windows icons" on the pager makes sense.

你面板上的下一个图标是分页器。它允许你在你的虚拟桌面之间切换。如果你通过“行数”选项更改了分页器的布局,它将影响到 KWin 的 DesktopGrid 桌面概览特效的布局和动画效果 -- (打开桌面效果,按下 [CTRL]+F8 以查看。)对于更大的分页器,打开分页器上的“显示窗口图标”也会起作用。

The taskbar is up next on the panel. It shows an area for all open windows on the current desktop by default. You can make it show all windows by checking "Traverse Windows on all desktops". Right clock on the window frame, choose Window behaviour, find this option in the "Focus" dialog. KWin's The expose effect offers similar functionality, it lays out all windows on the screen, start typing to filter the list, navigate with either mouse or arrow keys. The size of the text on the taskbar items can be set in Systemsettings | Appearance | Fonts | Taskbar.

面板的下一个是任务栏。它会默认为当前桌面上所有打开着的窗口显示一块区域。你可以通过勾选“在全部桌面上遍历窗口”将所有窗口遍历整个桌面显示。在窗口边框上右键点击,选择窗口行为,在“焦点”对话框中找到该选项。KWin 的 The expose effect 陈列特效提供了相近的功能,它可以将屏幕上的所有窗口重新布局,输入字符便可过滤窗口列表,用鼠标或箭头键进行导航。任务栏项目中的文本大小可以在 系统设置 | 外观 | 字体 | 任务栏 中设定。

Next on our default panel is the digital clock. This clock can display the time in different timezones. The sizing of the clock is half witchcraft, but you can partly influence it. The clock will adjust its font size to the area it is given by the surrounding containment (that's the panel in this case). If you choose to display the date, this date will be rendered using the "Small font" option from Systemsetting's Font dialog. The time will take the rest of the space. That means that for those who want it, it's possible to screw up the clock's display. On the one hand, the clock has to obey the user's setting for Small font (this setting reflects the "smallest readable font", by its very own definition, it simply does not make sense to use fonts smaller than that). So in the end, you'll choose yourself the amount of information displayed, and if that fits. If you want to display more information, make the panel larger or put the clock on the desktop where it can grow freely.

接下来的是数字时钟。这个时钟能以不同的时区显示时间。时钟的大小调整有着某种魔力,但是你可以部分地影响它。时钟会调整其字体大小适应周围的容器(这里是面板)。如果你选择显示日期,日期会使用系统设置中“小字体”选项进行渲染。时间则将占据剩余的空间。这就意味着对于那些想要日期的人,可以缩小时钟的显示了。一方面,时钟要遵守用户的小字体设置(这个设置反映了“最小的可读字体”,从其自己的定义而言,使用比它还小的字体将不起作用)。所以最后,如果能适应,你自己选择显示信息的数量。如果你想显示更多的信息,把面板弄大点或者把时钟放在能自由缩放的位置。

The rightmost Plasmoid in the default panel holds the systray, which is used by traditional applications as a dock. There's not a lot to say about it, other than "Plasma developers don't like the systray for its archaic architecture and want it to go away today rather than tomorrow". You probably know it from other desktop (even Operating Systems) already. It's basically a dumping ground for all kinds of things that you can better leave to their own plasmoids.

面板最右边默认是个系统托盘,用于传统应用程序的停靠。无需多说什么了,除了“Plasma 开发者不喜欢系统托盘,因为它的构架很古老,并想要现在就把它去掉,而不愿意拖到明天”。你可能从其它桌面(甚至操作系统)就已经知道它了。基本上它就是个你乱放任何东西的场所,但你却能把那些东西更好地留在其自己的 plasmoids 里面。

cashews
腰果

If you have unlocked your desktop (you can do that by right clicking on the desktop, or when no application has the focus with [CTRL]+L), a small Plasma logo will appear in the bottom right corner (it's commonly named the "cashew"). Click on this cashew, and the panelcontroller opens. The panel controller allows you to reposition, resize and realign the panel. The Plasmoids living in this panel will adjust their size automatically. Plasmoids have basic knowledge about sizing, provided by the containment. They're programmed to take advantage of that size, and inform the applet about how much space they possibly need. In the end, the containment gives a possible size to the applets, the applets obey.

如果你解锁了你的桌面(你可以在桌面上右键点击,或者在没有应用程序焦点的时候按下 [CTRL]+L),一个小的 Plasma logo 将会在右下角出现(它通常命名为“cashew”“腰果”)。点击该腰果,面板控制器就打开了。面板控制器允许你更改面板的位置、调整大小和重新对齐面板。面板上的 Plasmoids 会自动调整其大小。Plasmoids 拥有基本的调整大小的知识,知识由容器提供。开发者安排它们利用其大小,并通知部件它们需要多少空间。最后,容器给予部件一个可能的大小,而部件遵从这个大小。

adding applets
添加部件

Unlock the desktop and you'll be able to add and remove Plasmoids from panel or desktop. You add Plasmoids by simply dragging them where you want them. Right click on an applet to remove it. The "Add Applets" dialog also allows you to mark certain applets as "Favorite" so you can find them back more easily. The "Install new widgets" button allows you to add widgets you've previously downloaded. Currently it supports native "Plasmagik" packages and Mac OSX dashboard widgets. Widgets you install this way can then be accessed just like regular, preinstalled widgets.

解锁桌面,你就可以从面板或桌面添加/删除 Plasmoids。你可以通过简单地将它们拖到你想要放它们的地方来添加 Plasmoids。在部件上右键点击即可删除它。“添加部件”对话框还允许你将某些部件标记为“收藏”,这样你就能更容易地找回它们了。“安装新部件”按钮允许你添加那些你预先下载好的部件。目前它支持原生的“Plasmagik”软件包和 Mac OSX 仪表板部件。这样子安装的部件能够像通常预安装的部件一样操作。

the desktop
桌面

The desktop is in fact another containment. One that doesn't put size constraints on the applets. Applets can be moved and sized freely. On the unlocked desktop, Plasmoids will show a frame when you move the mouse over them. This applet handle allows you to move, resize, relocate and realign the panel. It also allows you to drag Plasmoids on the desktop. The buttons in the corner are used to resize, rotate configure and remove the applet. When rotated, a Plasmoid will act magnetic towards 12 o'clock, so it's easy to get them back into sensible position. By default, most applets keep their aspect ratio when they're being resized. If you want to freely resize an applet, hold the [CTRL] key pressed while resizing.

桌面实际上是另一个容器。一种不约束部件大小的容器。部件可以自由地移动和调整大小。在已解锁的桌面上,当你移动鼠标在 Plasmoids 上方时将显示一个边框。这个部件处理允许你移动、调整大小、重新放置和对齐面板。它还允许你在桌面上拖动 Plasmoids。角落上的按钮用于调整大小、旋转配置和删除部件。当旋转时,Plasmoid 将会在 12 点钟方向自动吸附,这样就能方便地将它们转回易查看的方向。默认时,大多数部件在调整大小时会保持它们的方向。如果你想要自由地调整一个部件的大小,请在调整时同时按住 [CTRL] 键。

Right clicking on the desktop also offers you to configure aspects such as the wallpaper used, and the Plasma theme. Both actions offer to download new wallpapers and themes through KNewStuff.

在桌面上右键点击也会提供你诸如墙纸和 Plasma 主题设置界面。两者都支持通过 KNewStuff 下载新墙纸和主题。

With open applications, it quickly gets hard to see the Plasmoids on your desktop. The Dashboard gets those Plasmoids in front of you, much like the "Show desktop" functionality you're used to from traditional desktops.

有应用程序打开时,查看你桌面上的 Plasmoids 马上会变得困难起来。Dashboard 仪表板可以将这些 Plasmoids 前端展示给你,就好比你在传统桌面中使用的“显示桌面”功能。

krunner
krunner 运行器

KRunner is a versatile mini-commandline. You can use it to start applications, open webpages, access bookmarks, search through your desktop data, calculate short equations, and many more. Pressing [ALT]+F2 opens the Krunner dialog. You just start typing and KRunner will start searching matches as soon as you've entered more than two characters. You can open the settings dialogue to learn about KRunner's functionality, provided by plugins. You can navigate through the matches using the tab and arrow keys.

KRunner 是个万用的迷你命令行程序。你可以用它启动应用程序、打开网页、访问书签、搜索你的桌面数据、计算小型等式等等。按下 [ALT]+F2 便可打开 KRunner 对话框。你只需输入,一旦你输入超过了两个字符,KRunner 就搜索相关匹配。你可以打开设置对话框以获悉由插件提供的 KRunner 功能。你可以通过使用 tab 和方向键导航匹配项目。

If you want to know what's going on on your system, there's the "Show System Activity" button, giving you quick access to a list of windows and processes, with options to monitor their output and kill processes.

如果你想知道有什么正在运行于你系统上,有个“显示系统活动”按钮,它会给你一份窗口和进程的列表,带有监视它们的输出和杀死进程的选项。

"activities" or the zooming user interface (zui)
“活动”或缩放用户界面(zui)

The desktop toolbox, accessed via the top right corner has a button for zooming out. Plasma allows you to have more than one activity. Basically, that is multiple desktop containments hosting multiple sets of Plasmoids. Zoom out from your current activity, choose "Add activity" to create a new containment, zoom in to your new containment and customize suiting your taste. Plasma's zooming and KWin's desktopgrid are similar in that respect, but there is a fundamental difference. While virtual desktop are used to group and organise windows, Plasma's activities are used to group and organise plasmoids. This way, you can switch between activities and have relevant plasmoids supporting the task you're currently trying to accomplish. You can create a "Freetime" activity, with comic strips, a puzzle and other Plasmoids, and a work activity, with relevant RSS feeds, calculator and calendar.

可又右上角访问的桌面工具箱有个用来缩小的按钮。Plasma 允许你拥有超过一个活动。基本上,它就是多个桌面容器承担着多组 Plasmoids。从你当前的活动缩小,选择“添加活动”以创建一个新容器,放大至你的新容器并自定义直至适合你的感受。Plasma 的缩放和 KWin 的 desktopgrid 桌面概览在这点上有着相似性,但有根本区别。虚拟桌面用于分组和组织窗口,而 Plasma 的活动用于分组和组织 plasmoids。这样子,你就可以在活动间切换并且对一个活动你能拥有一些相关的 plasmoids 来支持你当前正要完成的任务。你可以创建一个“空闲时间”活动,带有连环画、迷题智力游戏和其它 Plasmoids,以及一个工作活动,带有相关的 RSS 种子、计算器和日历。

That's it. Hope some of you understand Plasma better now, and that this blog helps those that feel lost initially do a little less so.

好了,就这些。希望你们中的一些现在能更好地理解 Plasma,也希望本日志能对那些起初感到迷茫的人帮点小忙。


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